BR is/has been used industrially in at least 9 countries, namely Belarus, China, Georgia, Greece, India, Moldova, Ukraine, Romania and Russia.
The cement sector can offer both industrially mature and industrially promising uses for bauxite residue, BR. Even if the cement sector is not panacea and most probably case specific
conditions will eventually determine a multitude of valorisation paths per refinery, it does offer a tangible paradigm. Some main points are summarised as follows:
- Addition of BR for OPC production can take place in levels close to 5 wt.%., most likely 3 wt.% (depending on BR), in the raw meal. A dewatering step for BR is needed. Levels of Na, Ti and Cr are of interest for BR and along with the Fe/Al ratio can determine maximum addition levels. The process is demonstrated in industrial scale.
- Addition of BR as pozzolanic material, preferably after calcination, results to mortars with lower compressive strength, in many cases still acceptable for a variety of applications. Addition is most probably less than 30 wt.%. More research is needed for properties other than compressive strength. The process is demonstrated in laboratory scale.
- BR produced after a bauxite sintering process, preferably after calcination, can exhibit hydraulic properties depending on the mineralogy. This is a case specific scenario mostly for China, with industrial implementation.
To continue reading, download:
“Bauxite residue in cement and cementitious applications: Current status and a possible way forward”, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.01.005
To download the article follow the link above, or the ResearchGate link or contact the authors.
Besides the article above, many researchers have contributed in the area and interesting work keeps on appearing. To see the latest publications in the area, visit the Download section of the Red Mud Project.