Home / News


Red Mud Project (250 members)

Group Settings

Email digest frequency

A group of like-minded people from academia and industry working towards the utilisation of Bayer's process residue, red mud.

Recent Discussions

















28 November 2011
We uploaded a number of the presentations given during the International Seminar on Bauxite Residue (Red Mud), Oct. 17-19, Goa, India, in session 3 (Bauxite Residue as Feedstock). Our sincere thanks goes to the respective authors for responding to this call and sending us a copy of their work. See more here.
23 October 2011
We started a LinkedIn group to help the interaction and the communication among interested parties. You may want to look further here: http://www.linkedin.com/groups/Red-Mud-Project-3992829 and sign-in.

23 October 2011
The International Seminar on Bauxite Residue (red mud) recently finished in Goa, India and was a success. The seminar was held from 17 to 19 of October and was structured around 3 areas: characterization (co-ordination by Frank Feret, Rio Tinto Alcan, and Peter Smith, CSIRO), processing, storage and storage area rehabilitation (co-ordination by Vinod Sood, Hindalco, and Leslie Leibenguth, LW Leibenguth Technical Services) and bauxite residue as feedstock (co-ordination by Yiannis Pontikes, KULeuven, and Andrey Panov, RUSAL). The proceedings, including the 35 papers submitted, are published by ICSOBA, in the Travaux, Vol. 36, 2011, No. 40.

I will try to provide links or make a web-page including the presentations given at the seminar. In the meantime, you may find here the presentation on bauxite residue for cement making.
11 July 2011
The 2nd Circular of the International Seminar on Bauxite Residue (red mud) is ready! To download click here.
31 March 2011
The International Seminar on Bauxite Residue (red mud) is scheduled to take place in October 17-19, in Goa, India.
30 January 2011
The key-note lecture by György (George) Bánvölgyi, on the 18th ICOBA symposium, titled: Red mud storage dam failure in Hungary: the most serious accident of the Bayer process, is available (more)
15 January 2011
The 18th International Symposium of ICSOBA was held in Zhengzhou, from 25 to 27 November 2010. More information can be retrieved in the official ICSOBA web site (i.e. http://icsoba.org/) The administrator of this site (Y. Pontikes) had two presentations. You can find them online here:
Case studies in Greece for the valorization of Bayer’s process bauxite residue: aggregates, ceramics, glass-ceramics, cement and catalysis.


15 January 2011
The ICSOBA has issued a press release regarding the accident at Ajka, Hungary. You can read it here.
15 January 2011
Colleagues from China have developed an excellent web site on red mud. See their work here:http://www.redmud.net.cn/Html/Main.asp
9 October 2010
On the accident at the Ajka bauxite refinery…See the dedicated web page here.
26 July 2010
CSIRO’s Bauxite, Residue and Disposal Database (BRaDD) is a web-based data platform that enables users to identify current practices worldwide in bauxite residue processing and storage, and evaluate options for sustainable utilisation of residue.


  • Background
  • The Bauxite, Residue and Disposal Database
  • An invitation to participate
  • Accessing BRaDD
  • Options for bauxite residue utilisation

The database enables new insights into the best options for bauxite residue management and future large-scale residue use.

It covers data from alumina refineries across the world, including their history of operation, and because it includes information on bauxite composition, allows users to link feed bauxite and processing to final residue disposal.

CSIRO researchers have developed the Bauxite, Residue and Disposal Database (BRaDD) as a comprehensive information bank that will allow identification of trends and patterns in production, management and storage of bauxite residues.

BRaDD has been developed through the Light Metals Flagship and CSIRO Process Science and Engineering via the Parker Cooperative Research Centre for Integrated Hydrometallurgy Solutions.

26 July 2010
In TMS 2010 Annual Meeting & Exhibition Light Metals, that took place in Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, USA, Anthimos Xenidis, Charalabos Zografidis, Ioannis Kotsis and Dimitrios Boufounos received the Best Paper award for their work: “Reductive Roasting and Magnetic Separation of Greek Bauxite Residue for its Utilization in Iron Ore Industry”. Congratulations!
Their abstract reads:

The treatment of Greek bauxite residue through reduction roasting and magnetic separation is investigated. A sample of Greek bauxite residue, hematite being the predominant iron carrier mineral, is subjected to reduction roasting to produce a calcine with intensive magnetic properties where magnetite or metallic iron are the main iron mineral phases. The calcine is then subjected to wet magnetic separation so that the magnetic product can be utilized as a feed for sponge or cast iron production. The effect of parameters such as temperature, intensity of reducing conditions, intensity of magnetic field or dispersing agent addition rate on the result of both processes is investigated. It was indicated that reductive roasting at 500 °C followed by wet magnetic separation of the calcine produced at low current intensity (0.04 A) and simultaneous addition of a dispersant resulted in the production of a magnetic product with iron content as high as 36%. The obtained results regarding iron recovery were very promising providing input for further research on the optimization of the proposed method.

21 September 2009
Platon Gamaletsos is the new member of the team, welcome! Mr. Gmaletsos is a PhD candidate at Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, Greece. His PhD thesis focuses on the determination and the detailed characterization of the Parnassos-Ghiona bauxite. In order to elucidate the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics he is using a combined utilization of thermal, spectroscopic and electron microscopy techniques. Besides that, he is working on Cr as well as on Th chemistry in bauxite and red mud using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For this purpose, he is collaborating with the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory for Environmental Studies (SUL-X) of the synchrotron radiation source ANKA (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). He is working with Lecturer Dr. Athanasios Godelitsas. Contact him at platon_gk_at_geol.uoa.gr

5 September 2009

The International Committee for study of Bauxite, Alumina & Aluminium (ICSOBA), was formed in 1963 in Zagreb (former Yugoslavia), and during the past 45 years it has become a famous International organization. The main objective of starting ICSOBA is to promote the exchange of ideas and results of the work from different fields of research related to bauxite exploration and exploitation, and alumina and aluminium production. During 1963 to 2009, about 17 symposiums, 10 congresses of ICSOBA were organized in different parts of the world and a TRAVAUX volume of the conference proceedings was published.

ICSOBA and Red Mud Project have decided to work closer and ICSOBA is a new partner. The collaboration involves (but in not limited to) the dissemination of the publications, reports and newsletters from both parties as well as efforts to establish common actions.

22 July 2009

Dr. Upendra Singh, presently working as scientist (Analytical Research Division) in Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminium Research Development and Design Centre, Nagpur, India, is the new member in the Team.

Dr. Singh has about 12 years experience in the field of raw material, intermediate products, finished products and industrial wastes analyses & characterization from aluminium industries. He is also monitoring projects on red mud utilization and development of value added product from other industrial wastes.

16 June 2009

Dr. Suvarapu Lakshmi Narayana is a Post Doctoral Fellow at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National Univeristy, Korea and has joined the Red Mud Project. Welcome!

Dr. Suvarapu Lakshmi Narayana was awarded a PhD from Sri Venkateswara University at 2008 and is now working on metal stabilization in mine drainage soil samples by using red mud.

23 March 2009

Two new papers on red mud utilisation in cement and ceramics’ production have been published. Go to the download page.

23 March 2009
Dr. Alok Satapathy, Assistant Professor in the Dept. of Mechanical Eng. at the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela in India, has joined the people working on the Red Mud Project. Welcome!

Dr. Alok Satapathy graduated from University College of Engineering, Burla, India in 1990, obtained his M.Tech. in Thermal Engineering in the year 1993 and Ph.D. in 2006 from the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela. His doctoral work was on plasma sprayed red mud coatings. His research interest lies in the area of utilization of red mud in developing protective coatings and functional composites.

2 February 2009

Dr. Jose L. Rico, a staff member at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Michoacan University, Morelia, México, has joined the people working on the Red Mud Project. Welcome!

His research interest focuses on heterogeneous catalysis in the areas of hydrotreating, production of hydrogen, biodiesel, water treatment and metal nitrides. He also had some research periods at the Hokkaido University, Japan, University of Zaragoza, Spain, and at the University of Liverpool, UK. He is actually spending a sabbatical year in the Department of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, UK, doing research on the generation of hydrogen using red mud as catalyst.

18 December 2008

I will try to upload as much as possible of the material one can find out there on the web. Obviously, the material is intended for fair use and the copyright belongs to the original authors.

18 December 2008
A personal note…

As time has passed by, and my research interests gradually shift from my “first love” (i.e. red mud), I must move on and devote less time on the web site. Unfortunately, despite I feel we helped in the dissemination of results on red mud and tried to do our best in answering any questions we received, in the same time, we didn’t succeed in bonding a team of individuals with a long-standing interest on red mud. My last efforts will be directed towards uploading most of the material I have gathered the previous years (not papers though) and in altering slightly the form of the web site so as to require little maintenance over time.

To those who bothered to drop a line, a sincere thank you. It made me think this effort was worthwhile and refuelled me with the hope that this was not in vain.
17 December 2008
Dr. Justin Hargreaves, a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Chemistry, University of Glasgow, has joined the people working on the Red Mud Project. Welcome!

His research interests centre upon heterogeneous catalysis. Particular areas of interest include alkane activation, oxidation catalysis and novel nitrogen transfer pathways. His interest in red mud stems from a UKIERI British Council Grant, which is held jointly with TERI, New Delhi where the aim is to investigate the application of red mud to the co-generation of hydrogen and carbon sorbents.

23 March 2008

We have developed a Forum with the hope to assist the exchange of views and ideas on the utilisation of red mud.

To further promote it, we have re-designed the home page so as to enable fast access (more)

20 March 2008
Vedanta Resources plc was listed in London in December 2003. We are a diversified and integrated FTSE 250 metals and mining group with annual sales of $1.9bn. Our principal operations are located in India, where we have a major market share in each of our main metals: aluminium, copper, zinc and lead. There are also substantial copper operations in Zambia and a copper mine in Australia. Vedanta has a strong track record in managing operations and improving costs and output. Our Indian zinc and copper operations rank in the top quartile of global cost efficiency. In addition to the existing operations, Vedanta has extensive expansion projects across each of our metals. Several major projects announced last year are now being implemented. With an investment spending of $3.1bn, half of which has already been completed. At the time of listing, Vedanta set out a carefully structured strategy, to which the board and management remain committed.

4 November 2007

Mr. Suresh Chauhan has joined the people working on the Red Mud Project. Welcome!

Mr. Suresh Chauhan holds Master’s degree in Environmental Science from the University of Garhwal, Srinagar, Uttaranchal, Diploma in Computer Application from NIIT, Dehradun and Diploma in Remote Sensing from IIRS, Dehradun Uttaranchal. He has been associated with the Forestry & Biodiversity Group of TERI, since October 2000. Currently, he is Associate Fellow in TERI, and involved in the various consultancy research projects in devising mechanism for rehabilitation of mine dumps through vegetation. He has contributed number of publications in the field of biomass assessment and rehabilitation of mine dump wastes. He has coordinated number of workshops and training program in TERI and also participated in various national and international conferences. To learn more about his profile and his research on red mud, please visit http://www.redmud.org/Who_We_Are.html

18 July 2007
A new project on Red Mud has been added in the Web Site. The project is entitled: “System-analytical and live-cycle-analysis embedded development of geopolymeric binder”, and Red Mud will be tested as a candidate material. To learn more about the project and the people working, please follow the link to visit their web-page!

12 June 2007
Dr. S. S. Amritphale has joined the people working on the Red Mud Project. Welcome!

Dr. S. S. Amritphale is currently Senior Scientist at Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, (AMPRI), Formerly Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR, Bhopal M.P. India. He has twenty-seven years of diverse experience in research in the area of Applied Chemistry, Ceramics, Wastes Utilization, Environmental and Societal Mission. His expertise is in the area of “total utilization” of industrial wastes for making high value added functional materials. He has published 54 scientific research papers in international and national Journals and Conference proceedings and filed 14 national and 2 international patents. Presently, his R&D work is in the area of “Development of Non toxic X-ray and Gamma radiation shielding materials utilizing industrial waste, namely bauxite red mud and fly ash”. One of his latest articles on red mud features in the Journal of the European Ceramic Society (“A novel process for making radiopaque materials using bauxite-Red mud”, JECS, 27(2007) 1945-1951). To learn more about his profile, please visit http://www.redmud.org/Who_We_Are.html

14 May 2007
We have a link now for the “Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Management of Tailings and Waste-Rock in Mining Activities”. This is a very important document compiled in EU with valuable information on the management practises of European alumina producers. As reported in the summary: “This work covers activities related to tailings and waste-rock management of ores that have the potential for a significant environmental impact. In particular the work sought out activities that can be considered as examples of “good practice”. Mining techniques and mineral processing are only covered as relevant to tailings and waste-rock management. The intention is to raise awareness of such practices and promote their use across all activities in this sector”. To download the file, go to the Download section.

13 May 2007
Two new members have been added in our Team!

Wanchao Liu is a graduate student from College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China. His Master thesis is about comprehensive utilization of red mud. He will pursue his PhD this September further working on red mud. His supervisor professor Jiakuan Yang, director of Environmental Engineering Department, HUST, has been doing research work since 2001 on producing non-cremation brick, microcrystalline glass and road basic material with red mud.

Adibhatla Santharam is a Senior Mining geologist with the Mining Reaearch and Consultancy Division, Indian Bureau of Mines, at Nagpur.

15 March 2007

To download the European Waste Catalog, follow the link or go to the Download section. Red Mud is considered as a non-hazardous waste.

15 March 2007
You can visit the Blog for RedMud.org at http://redmud.org/blog/ As in every Blog, it is quite personal and gives my own perspecive and opinion on things. Nevertheless, I thought it would be a more effective way to have some kind of interaction and feedback.

14 November 2006
Snigdha Sushil has joined the people working on the Red Mud Project. Welcome!

Snigdha is pursuing her PhD from TERI University, New Delhi, India. Her PhD thesis involves studying the catalytic property of red mud for the control of certain industrial emissions. She has an M.Sc. in Environment Management (2004) and a Bachelors in Science from Delhi University (2002). In the past, she has worked on the heavy metals content of fly ash from thermal power plants and on the effluents from thermo-chemical biomass gasifiers. To learn more about her profile, please visit http://www.redmud.org/Who_We_Are.html

12 October 2006
Harish K. Chandwani is the new person participating in the administrating Team of Red Mud Project. Welcome!

He is a dipl. Chemical Engineer with post-graduate studies in Business Administration, Marketing and Production Management in India. He is currently working as Alumina Specialist with Mining and Metal Global Business Unit of Bechtel India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi Execution Unit. He has 32 years of rich experience in Bayer process of alumina extraction in the filed of plant operation, maintenance, R&D and project implementation.

5 October 2006
A completely new page has been uploaded. In the Download section, you can download files, reports, abstracts and presentations relevant with Red Mud (Bauxite Residue). The page is divided into two sections. You can find material published from the research group of University of Patras and material that is available in the web.

Please, make a “fair use” of these resources. This term implies that they will be used for academic research, educational purposes or personal use and not for commercial research or in order to make profit. The copyright of all files enlisted herein, belongs solely to the authors or the corresponding organizations.

5 September 2006
An updated version of Disposal web page was uploaded. No big changes, the main new feature is a Google Earth picture with a Red Mud lake, in Australia.

25 April 2006
“A Success Story”. Aluminium de Grece (AdG) has installed a High Pressure Filter Press early this year, in order to progressively cease sea disposal for Red Mud. The overall cost exceeded 2 million euros. In the near future a second Filter Press is expected to be installed and then the whole quantity of produced Red Mud will be processed in this manner. The resulting semi-dry product, is named “Ferro-alumina” and there are concrete hopes for its marketing. So far, an agreement has been signed between AdG and two industrial partners for delivering “Ferro-alumina”. The material will be used for cement and bricks production. We have uploaded pictures taken during a visit in AdG and have also produced a small Flash video to celebrate the realization of a long project. To see Flash, click here, to see pictures and videos click here.

5 April 2006
New home page uploaded. We hope that this one is aesthetically preferable compared to the previous one. You can also see pictures from demonstration projects that have taken place in Greece.

2 October 2005
Learn more about applications of Red Mud in Greece. Visit www.refil.gr

2 October 2005
A very detailed pdf file on the Mineral Industry of Greece by Harold R. Newman. “…Greece was the largest producer of bauxite, magnesium, nickel, and perlite in the European Union (EU)…” Follow the link to download the article

29 September 2005
Three new papers on Red Mud are available in the open literature. Three different journals and three different topics. (1) Srinivasan Srikanthw,z, Ajay Kumar Ray, Amitava Bandopadhyay, and Bandari Ravikumar, Phase Constitution During Sintering of Red Mud and Red Mud–Fly Ash Mixtures, J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 88 [9] 2396–2401 (2005), (2) G. Papatheodorou, H. Papaefthymiou, A. Maratou and G. Ferentinos, Natural radionuclides in bauxitic tailings (red-mud) in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece, Radioprotection, Suppl. 1, vol. 40 (2005) S549-S555, (3) Taner Kavas, Use of boron waste as a fluxing agent in production of red mud brick, Building and Environment (expected), See the updated bibliography database.

28 September 2005
We uploaded pictures taken at the 9th Conference & Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society, held in Portorož, Slovenia. You can access the pictures by following the link, or by clicking on the gallery after visiting the project “Utilisation of Red Mud in the Cement and Ceramic Industry”

13 July 2005
In the “Production” page we added a beautiful animated picture for the Bayer process. More interesting material can be found at the web site: http://www.specialty-aluminas.alcan.com/gardanne/webgardannev2.nsf/vwUrl/MondeAlumine_Bayer_VI which is developed by ALCAN. In the same site, a very interesting presentation for a material being produced by Red Mud can be found. Its name is Bauxaline®, it has been developed by the Gardanne plant of the former Pechiney group, and can be used in a variety of processes. By clicking Bauxaline® or by visiting the web-site you can view the file (pdf).

12 July 2005
The Elsevier Publishing house granted the reproduction of selected material. Please see the updated pages of “Production” and “Disposal”. We have included new tables/figures…

24 June 2005
From 19 to 23 of June, 2005, in Portorož, Slovenia, the 9th Conference & Exhibition of the European Ceramic Society took place. The research group from University of Patras (and people actively working on this site) presented two works on Red Mud, in cement and ceramics. We will upload soon the presentation and the poster.

20 June 2005
The Bibliographic database is really extended, divided in thematic regions and covers the majority of the papers in open literature for the past 20 years. We have tried to cite only relevant sources of information and not the results derived by a search engine. Obviously, it is intended only for “fair use”. This term implies that they will be used for academic research or educational purposes and not for commercial research or in order to make profit. The categories are divided to “Red Mud and Environment”, “Red Mud and its Uses” and “Red Mud and Miscellaneous”. For more please go to Bibliography.

8 May 2005
Research groups from three countries have been added. For Greece, five research groups have been added and two for Italy. In USA, the research group of Dr. Wagh is also present in the list.

1 May 2005
We entered for trial use a link to AltaVista that provides on-line translation for the web pages. It appears only on one web page, at Characteristics

15 March 2005

Site Updated! New features and new layout. Navigation bar, no frames, problems with different screen resolutions overcame. Also Jump menu and new pages, as FAQ and Bibliography.

17 February 2005
The search engine for the site is functional. The map is also working and you can have direct access to the continent of your interest and check red mud projects. Visit also the new links. Photo of “red mud lake” from India is available. Check also the source under the picture and learn about the mining project in the vicinity of Kashipur. Support the struggle of the people of Kashipur.

15 February 2005
New interface and web site layout under preparation. Launching expected in March. The new interface will have an easier menu employing a navigation bar and forum for discussions. New graphics, no frame design and “expandable” width will also be some of the new characteristics.

14 February 2005
Abstract for IX ECERS on red mud, accepted as oral presentations in Symposia H. The title of the abstract is “Thermal Behaviour of Clay Mixtures with Residual Bauxite for the Production of Heavy-Clay Ceramics”, by Y. Pontikes, G. N. Angelopoulos, P. Nikolopoulos. Meet us there!

8 February 2005
(Comment refers to previous version)

A new page for “Red Mud Project”. More information and bibliographic background for characteristics of RM, disposal methods, applications etc.

29 January 2005
(Comment refers to previous version)

Site updated. Site map available, one of the red mud projects in Greece more up to date.

20 January 2005
www.redmud.org is launched

Scroll To Top